Copland’s new CSA100 integrated amplifier aims to combine the advantages of tubes and transistor amplification using the synectic design concept that has made previous Copland hybrid amplifiers so popular. The CSA100 (£3,498) has a solid state 2 x 100W current feedback power plant, fed by a double triode tube-preamplifier. One tube is responsible for the line amplification and the efficiency of this single tube layout is astonishing. The double triode tube runs at high voltage and is set up for maximum linearity, taking care of the voltage amplification only. AMOS-FET transistor circuitry delivers the brute force driving the output stage and feedback circuitry, thus securing a firm handshake between the world of electronic tubes governed by voltage and the current controlled transistor technology. If you want the warm and coloured charm of some older tube designs look elsewhere, the CSA100 amplifier is made for monitoring. In this application the tube provides life, headroom and dynamics that is hard to find in amplifiers relying on solid state technology only. For the vinyl enthusiast the CSA100 has an input for MM cartridges. The amplifier also employs an excellent D/A converter with multiple S/PDIF inputs, PCM, and DSD capabilities using the ES9018 Reference 32-bit DAC in quad-mono, 8 mono to 2 stereo configuration.